Oslis Secondary Citing Sources In An Essay

Use this template to cite an entire book, pamphlet, or report. Also, use this template to cite part of a book or encyclopedia, such as an article, chapter, essay, play, poem, or short story. This applies to all formats: print, audio, online, or e-book.

Example – Book, 3 authors, edition

Reilly, Mary Jo, et al. Mexico. 3rd ed., Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2012.

Example – E-book, 1 author, downloaded to a device

Arnold, Eric. Volcanoes! Mountains of Fire. E-book, Random House, 2013.

Example – Article in a book, library database, 2 editors

Lerner, K. Lee, and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, editors. "Soccer.” World of Sports Science, vol. 2, Gale, 2007, pp. 647-49. Gale Virtual Reference Library, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=GVRL&sw=w&u=port&v=2.1&it=r​&id=GALE%7CCX3451100488&asid=7f7a14a418f9fdb081e1f5587d079270.

Example – Encyclopedia article, Internet, publisher is same as Web site title (so do not list publisher)

Stock, Joann. "Earthquake." World Book Student, 2016, worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar171680.

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In APA, secondary sources often refer to sources found within other sources.

Citing a source within a source is acceptable within academic writing as long as these citations are kept to a minimum. You should use a secondary source only if you are unable to find or retrieve the original source of information. However, if you need to cite a source within a source, follow the guidelines from page 178 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition.

For example, imagine that you found a quotation from Culver that you wish to use in your text; however, you found this information in Jones and were unable to locate Culver’s original source. For this reference, Culver would be the primary source, and Jones would be the secondary source. You will name the primary source in your text, but the reference and citations will credit the secondary source:

According to Culver (as cited in Jones, 2009), learning APA "can be tough, but like any skill, it just takes practice" (p. 23). In addition, the mastery of APA increases an author's chance of scoring well on an assignment (Culver, as cited in Jones, 2009).

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